(Enter a number and I'll tell you everything you wanted to know about it but were afraid to ask.)
The number n is called an automorphic number if (the decimal expansion of) n2 ends with n. These numbers are also called curious.
It is curious, how for a k-digit automorphic number n there is another automorphic number -- 10k + 1 - n. For this to work with n=1, you have to treat 1 as a zero-digit number.
Pentagonal numbers are of the form n(3n - 1)/2.
Pentagonal numbers are to pentagons what triangular numbers are to triangles and square numbers are to squares.
A positive integer greater than 1 that is not prime is called composite.
Composite numbers are opposite to prime numbers.
The number n is deficient if the sum of all its positive divisors except itself is less than n.
Compare with perfect and abundant numbers.
A number is even if it is divisible by 2.
Numbers that are not even are odd. Compare with another pair -- evil and odious numbers.
One can take the sum of the squares of the digits of a number. Those numbers are happy for which iterating this operation eventually leads to 1.
The number n is odious if it has an odd number of 1's in its binary expansion.
Guess what evil numbers are.